Volume 21, Issue 26 (12-2023)                   RSMT 2023, 21(26): 159-171 | Back to browse issues page

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hadi H. The Effect Of Different Doses Of Caffeine Chewing Gum On Stress Hormones And Shooting Performance Of Military Men. RSMT 2023; 21 (26) :159-171
URL: http://jsmt.khu.ac.ir/article-1-629-en.html
Assistant Professor Of Police University , amir.hadi1@gmail.com
Abstract:   (903 Views)
The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of different doses of caffeine chewing gum on stress hormones and shooting performance of military men. The subjects of the present research were 10 commanders of Valiasr Police Training Center in Tabriz with a mean and standard deviation of age of 31.52±2.78 years, weight of 75.32±3.91 kilograms, His height was 176.14 ± 4.84 cm. The levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone and oxytocin in the blood as well as shooting performance were measured after consuming different doses of caffeine. In the first phase, the placebo was given 15 minutes before the shooting. In the second, third and fourth stages (the time interval between each stage is 5 days), all the subjects were given caffeine gum with doses of 150, 200 and 300 mg 15 minutes before the shooting. Gum and placebo were given to the participants in a double-blind manner. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey's post hoc test were used to analyze the data(P≤0.05). The results of the present study showed that the consumption of caffeine gum in doses of 200 and 300 grams causes a significant decrease in all three stress hormones and also a significant increase in shooting performance, however, the consumption of a dose of 150 mg of caffeine don’t have an effect on the reduction of stress hormones and Shooting performance. According to these results, shooting athletes can be advised to use caffeine gum with doses of 200 and 300 mg before their training and competitions. However, more studies are needed to comment on the use of different doses of caffeine, especially in the form of chewing gum.

 
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Type of Study: Research | Subject: sport physiology
Received: 2023/11/10 | Accepted: 2023/12/20 | Published: 2023/12/31

References
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24. Filip-Stachnik A, Krawczyk R, Krzysztofik M, Rzeszutko-Belzowska A, Dornowski M, Zajac A, et al. Effects of acute ingestion of caffeinated chewing gum on performance in elite judo athletes. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2021;18(1):49. [DOI:10.1186/s12970-021-00448-y]
25. McLellan TM, Caldwell JA, Lieberman HR. A review of caffeine's effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2016;71:294-312. [DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.09.001]
26. Cappelletti S, Piacentino D, Fineschi V, Frati P, Cipolloni L, Aromatario M. Caffeine-related deaths: manner of deaths and categories at risk. Nutrients. 2018;10(5):611. [DOI:10.3390/nu10050611]
27. Nourizadeh S, Mirjani M, Naserpour H. The Relationship Between Core Stability, Muscular Endurance, and Static Balance, and Shooting Function in Military Soldiers. J Sport Biomech 2019; 5 (1):62-71. [DOI:10.32598/biomechanics.5.1.6]
28. Karami E, Radfar H, Zarei H. Factors affecting the accuracy and performance of shooting in both military and sports fields: A review of the literature. EBNESINA 2023; 25 (1):65-74.
29. Farhadi, M. Samadi, A. Nasiri, E. The Effect of Different Nocturnal Sleep Patterns on Shooting Accuracy, Reaction Time and Cognitive Function of Military Students. Journal of Military Medicine, 2022; 24(2): 1123-1131.
30. Share B, Sanders N, Kemp J. Caffeine and performance in clay target shooting. Journal of sports sciences. 2009;27(6):661-6. [DOI:10.1080/02640410902741068]
31. Gillingham RL, Keefe AA, Tikuisis P. Acute caffeine intake before and after fatiguing exercise improves target shooting engagement time. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. 2004;75(10):865-71.
32. Tikuisis P, Keefe AA, McLellan TM, Kamimori G. Caffeine restores engagement speed but not shooting precision following 22 h of active wakefulness. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. 2004;75(9):771-6.
33. Tharion WJ, Shukitt-Hale B, Lieberman HR. Caffeine effects on marksmanship during high-stress military training with 72 hour sleep deprivation. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. 2003;74(4):309-14.
34. Kamimori GH, Karyekar CS, Otterstetter R, Cox DS, Balkin TJ, Belenky GL, et al. The rate of absorption and relative bioavailability of caffeine administered in chewing gum versus capsules to normal healthy volunteers. International journal of pharmaceutics. 2002;234(1-2):159-67. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-5173(01)00958-9]
35. Nygaard H, Riksaasen S, Hjelmevoll LM, Wold E. Effect of caffeine ingestion on competitive rifle shooting performance. PLoS One. 2019;14(10):e0224596. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0224596]
36. Pomportes L, Brisswalter J, Hays A, Davranche K. Effects of carbohydrate, caffeine, and guarana on cognitive performance, perceived exertion, and shooting performance in high-level athletes. International journal of sports physiology and performance. 2019;14(5):576-82. [DOI:10.1123/ijspp.2017-0865]
37. Paton CD, Lowe T, Irvine A. Caffeinated chewing gum increases repeated sprint performance and augments increases in testosterone in competitive cyclists. European journal of applied physiology. 2010;110:1243-50. [DOI:10.1007/s00421-010-1620-6]
38. Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA. Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and training. Sports medicine. 2005;35:339-61. [DOI:10.2165/00007256-200535040-00004]
39. Russell M, Reynolds NA, Crewther BT, Cook CJ, Kilduff LP. Physiological and performance effects of caffeine gum consumed during a simulated half-time by professional academy rugby :union: players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2020;34(1):145-51. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002185]
40. Khindria N. Evaluation of the effects of acute caffeine supplementation on selected cognitive domains in older women: a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand: Massey University; 2022.
41. Pickering C, Grgic J. Caffeine and exercise: what next? Sports Medicine. 2019;49:1007-30. [DOI:10.1007/s40279-019-01101-0]
42. Ribeiro JA, Sebastiao AM. Caffeine and adenosine. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 2010;20(s1):S3-S15. [DOI:10.3233/JAD-2010-1379]
43. Costenla AR, Cunha RA, De Mendonça A. Caffeine, adenosine receptors, and synaptic plasticity. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 2010;20(s1):S25-S34. [DOI:10.3233/JAD-2010-091384]
44. Rana V, Rai P, Tiwary AK, Singh RS, Kennedy JF, Knill CJ. Modified gums: Approaches and applications in drug delivery. Carbohydrate polymers. 2011;83(3):1031-47 [DOI:10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.09.010]

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