Volume 21, Issue 25 (9-2023)                   RSMT 2023, 21(25): 30-45 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mousavisadati S K, Nazari S, Molanorouzi K. Effects of Snorkel on Teaching Principal Swimming Skills in Non-Swimmer Children and Adolescents with Fear of Water. RSMT 2023; 21 (25) :30-45
URL: http://jsmt.khu.ac.ir/article-1-556-en.html
East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, , drmousavisadati@gmail.com
Abstract:   (703 Views)
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of snorkeling on teaching basic swimming skills in non-swimmer children and teenagers with fear of water. This research was an experimental type with a pre-test and post-test design with a control group. The participants were 30 children (8.95±0.64 years old) and 30 teenagers (15.06±0.71 years old) non-swimmers who were afraid of water, and the participants of each group were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups (15 people in each group). After participating in the pre-test of skills of entering the water, opening the eyes in the water, gliding, orientation in the water and movement in the water and breath holding, all four groups entered a 20-session course of swimming training, so that the experimental group with snorkel and the control group without snorkel were taught basic swimming skills by an instructor. Then all four groups participated in the post-test. The data were analyzed by two-factor multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and Benferoni's post hoc test. The results of the findings show that the main effects of age were not significant, but the main effects of training and the interactive effects of age and training were significant. Using a snorkel in children and teenagers did not have a significant effect on the skill of entering the water, opening the eyes in the water, but it had a significant and positive effect on the skills of gliding, orientation in the water and movement in the water. Also, the use of snorkel in children and teenagers had a significant and negative effect on breath holding skill. Considering that the results of the present study show the positive effects of using a snorkel on learning the skills of gliding and orientation in water and moving in water and its negative effect on breath holding skill in children and teenagers, it is recommended that the instructors who use snorkel to acclimatize children and teenagers to the water, provide additional training to improve the skill of holding their breath.
Full-Text [PDF 1543 kb]   (168 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: sport physiology
Received: 2023/01/24 | Accepted: 2023/08/23 | Published: 2023/09/1

1. 1.Avelar I, Soares V, Barbosa R, Andrade S, Silva M, Vieira M. The influence of a protocol of aquatic exercises in postural control of obese elderly. Revista andaluza de medicina del deporte. 2018;11(2):69-74. [DOI:10.1016/j.ramd.2016.01.003]
2. Rees JL, Johnson ST, Boulé NG. Aquatic exercise for adults with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Acta diabetologica. 2017;54(10):895-904. [DOI:10.1007/s00592-017-1023-9]
3. Wasser JG, Vasilopoulos T, Zdziarski LA, Vincent HK. Exercise benefits for chronic low back pain in overweight and obese individuals. PM&R. 2017;9(2):181-92. [DOI:10.1016/j.pmrj.2016.06.019]
4. Kish T, Badami R. Effects of Systematic Desensitization on state anxiety, fear of depth and interest to continue to sport participation in female swimming beginners. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2019;10(4):59-68.
5. Mollanorouzi M, Issazadeghan A, Soleimani S. The effectiveness of Adlerian therapy on the clinical symptoms and the life satisfaction of generalized anxiety disordered students. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2018;10(1):1-9.
6. Lunetta P. Drowning. Asphyxiation, Suffocation, and Neck Pressure Deaths: CRC Press; 2020. p. 260-84. [DOI:10.1201/9780429188947-27]
7. Stallman RK, Moran Dr K, Quan L, Langendorfer S. From swimming skill to water competence: Towards a more inclusive drowning prevention future. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education. 2017;10(2):3. [DOI:10.25035/ijare.10.02.03]
9. Irwin CC, Pharr JR, Irwin RL. Understanding factors that influence fear of drowning in children and adolescents. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education. 2015;9(2):5. [DOI:10.25035/ijare.09.02.05]
10. Yule W, Udwin O, Murdoch K. The 'Jupiter'sinking: effects on children's fears, depression and anxiety. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 1990;31(7):1051-61. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1990.tb00845.x]
11. Jurgec N, Kapus J, Majerič M. Učenje plavanja v nekaterih evropskih državah. Sport: Revija Za Teoreticna in Prakticna Vprasanja Sporta. 2016;64.
12. Quan L, Ramos W, Harvey C, Kublick L, Langendorfer S, Lees TA, et al. Toward defining water competency: an American red cross definition. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education. 2015;9(1):3. [DOI:10.25035/ijare.09.01.03]
13. Berukoff KD, Hill GM. A study of factors that influence the swimming performance of Hispanic high school students. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education. 2010;4(4):7. [DOI:10.25035/ijare.04.04.07]
14. Lepore M, Columna L, Lizner LF. Assessments and activities for teaching swimming: Human Kinetics; 2015.
15. Sardari S, Shahabi Kaseb M, Zeidabadi R. Two-Factor Questionnaire of Phobia of Swimming: Design, Construct, and Psychometry. Sport Psychology Studies (ie, mutaleat ravanshenasi varzeshi). 2021;10(35):235-58.
16. Milosevic I, McCabe RE. Phobias: The psychology of irrational fear: The psychology of irrational fear: Abc-Clio; 2015.
17. Newell KM, Liu YT. Landscape dynamics of motor learning and development. Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2012;40(6):519-34. [DOI:10.1615/CritRevBiomedEng.2013006818]
18. Langendorfer SJ. Changing learn-to-swim and drowning prevention using aquatic readiness and water competence. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education. 2015;9(1):2. [DOI:10.25035/ijare.09.01.02]
19. Kapus J, Moravec T, Lomax M. Effects of head position on the duration of breaststroke swimming in preschool swimming beginners. Kinesiologia Slovenica. 2018;24(2):17-27.
20. Parker HE, Blanksby BA, Quek KL. Learning to swim using buoyancy aides. Pediatric Exercise Science. 1999;11(4):377-92. [DOI:10.1123/pes.11.4.377]
21. Schmidt RA, Lee TD, Winstein C, Wulf G, Zelaznik HN. Motor control and learning: A behavioral emphasis: Human kinetics; 2018.
22. Gadberry A, Gadberry J. Black drowning deaths: an introductory analysis. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education. 2020;13(1):4. [DOI:10.25035/ijare.13.01.04]
23. Kuntz B, Frank L, Manz K, Rommel A, Lampert T. Social determinants of swimming ability among children and adolescents in Germany. Results of KiGGS Wave 1. 2016. [DOI:10.5960/dzsm.2016.238]
24. Misimi F, Kajtna T, Misimi S, Kapus J. Development and validity of the fear of water assessment questionnaire. Frontiers in psychology. 2020;11:969. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00969]
25. Harrod D, Langendorfer S. A scalogram analysis of the American Red Cross Beginner swimming skill items. Unpublished Masters thesis, Kent State University, Kent, OH. 1991.
26. Kjendlie P-L, Mendritzki M. Movement patterns in free water play after swimming lessons with flotation aids. 2012. [DOI:10.25035/ijare.06.02.06]
27. Martens R, Burton D, Vealey RS, Bump LA, Smith DE. Development and validation of the competitive state anxiety inventory-2. Competitive anxiety in sport. 1990;3(1):117-90.
28. Van Kaam AL. The Life Journey of a Joyful Man of God: The Autobiographical Memoirs of Adrian van Kaam: Wipf and Stock Publishers; 2010.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Research in Sport Medicine and Technology

Designed & Developed by: Yektaweb